The enigmatic B[e]-star Henize 2-90: The non-spherical mass loss history from an analysis of forbidden lines

M. Kraus$^1$, M. Borges Fernandes$^{1,2}$ F.X. de Ara\'ujo$^2$, H.J.G.L.M. Lamers$^1$

$^1$ - Astronomical Institute, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, NL 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands; $^2$ - Observat\'orio Nacional-MCT, Rua General Jos\'e Cristino 77, 20921-400 S\~ao Cristov\~ao, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

(abridged) We study the optical spectrum of the exciting B[e] star Hen 2-90 based on new high-resolution observations that cover the innermost 2\arcsec. Our investigation is splitted in two parts, a qualitative study of the presence of the numerous emission lines and the classification of their line profiles which indicate a circumstellar environment of high complexity, and a quantitative analysis of numerous forbidden lines, e.g. [OI], [OII], [OIII], [SII], [SIII], [ArIII], [ClII], [ClIII] and [NII]. We find a correlation between the different ionization states of the elements and the velocities derived from the line profiles: the highly ionized atoms have the highest outflow velocity while the neutral lines have the lowest outflow velocity. The recent HST image of Hen 2-90 reveals a bipolar, highly ionized region, a neutral disk-like structure and an intermediate region of moderate ionization. It seems that a non-spherical stellar wind model is a good option to explain the ionization and spatial distribution of the circumstellar material. We modelled the forbidden lines under the assumption of a non-spherically symmetric wind based on the HST image. We find that in order to fit the observed line luminosities, the mass flux, surface temperature, and terminal wind velocities need to be latitude dependent, which might be explained in terms of a rapidly rotating central star. A rotation speed of 75-80\% of the critical velocity has been derived. The total mass loss rate of the star was determined to be of order $3\times 10^{-5}$\,M$_{\odot}$yr$^{-1}$. Such a wind scenario and the fact that compared to solar abundances C, O, and N seem to be underabundant while S, Ar and Cl have solar abundances, might be explained in terms of a rapidly rotating post-AGB star.

Reference: Accepted by A\&A
Status: Manuscript has been accepted