Evolution of blue supergiants and alpha Cygni variables;
Puzzling CNO surface abundances
Hideyuki Saio$^1$, Cyril Georgy$^2$, and Georges Meynet$^3$
1 - Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 2 - Astrophysics, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, EPSAM, Keele, University, 3 - Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva
A massive star can enter the blue supergiant region either evolving directly from the main-sequence, or evolving from a previous red supergiant stage. The fractions of the blue supergiants having different histories depend on the internal mixing and mass-loss during the red supergiant stage. We study the possibility to use diagnostics based on stellar pulsation to discriminate blue supergiants having different evolution histories. For this purpose we have studied the pulsation property of massive star models calculated with the Geneva stellar evolution code for initial masses ranging from 8 to 50 M_odot with a solar metallicity of Z=0.014. We have found that radial pulsations are excited in the blue-supergiant region only in the models that had been red-supergiants before. This would provide us with a useful mean to diagnose the history of evolution of each blue-supergiant. At a given effective temperature, much more nonradial pulsations are excited in the model after the red-supergiant stage than in the model evolving towards the red-supergiant. The properties of radial and nonradial pulsations in blue supergiants are discussed. Predicted periods are compared with period ranges observed in some alpha-Cygni variables in the Galaxy and NGC 300. We have found that blue supergiant models after the red- supergiant stage roughly agree with observed period ranges in most cases. However, we are left with the puzzle that the predicted surface N/C and N/O ratios seem to be too high compared with those of Deneb and Rigel.
Reference: MNRAS in press
Status: Manuscript has been accepted