Kepler sheds new and unprecedented light on the variability of a blue supergiant: gravity waves in the O9.5Iab star HD 188209
Aerts, C.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Bloemen, S.; Debosscher, J.; Papics, P. I.; Bryson, S.; Still, M.; Moravveji, E.; Williamson, M. H.; Grundahl, F.; Fredslund Andersen, M.; Antoci, V.; Palle, P. L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Rogers, T. M.
1 Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
2 Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
3 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
4 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
5 NASA Ames Research Center, Moett Field, CA 94095, USA
6 Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 560 Third Street W., Sonoma, CA 95476, USA
7 Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd., Box 9501, Nashville, TN
8 Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
9 Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, UK
10 Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Stellar evolution models are most uncertain for evolved massive stars. Asteroseismology based on high-precision uninterrupted space photometry has become a new way to test the outcome of stellar evolution theory and was recently applied to a multitude of stars, but not yet to massive evolved supergiants.Our aim is to detect, analyse and interpret the photospheric and wind variability of the O9.5Iab star HD 188209 from Kepler space photometry and long-term high-resolution spectroscopy. We used Kepler scattered-light photometry obtained by the nominal mission during 1460d to deduce the photometric variability of this O-type supergiant. In addition, we assembled and analysed high-resolution high signal-to-noise spectroscopy taken with four spectrographs during some 1800d to interpret the temporal spectroscopic variability of the star. The variability of this blue supergiant derived from the scattered-light space photometry is in full in agreement with the one found in the ground-based spectroscopy. We find significant low-frequency variability that is consistently detected in all spectral lines of HD 188209. The photospheric variability propagates into the wind, where it has similar frequencies but slightly higher amplitudes. The morphology of the frequency spectra derived from the long-term photometry and spectroscopy points towards a spectrum of travelling waves with frequency values in the range expected for an evolved O-type star. Convectively-driven internal gravity waves excited in the stellar interior offer the most plausible explanation of the detected variability.
Status: Manuscript has been accepted